- Japanese Society of Toxicology -Present and Future Perspectives- (Tetsuo Satoh)
- Toxicology in Asia—Past, present, and future (Tetsuo Satoh)
- On Our Society （Hitoshi Endou MD. Ph.D）
JAPANESE SOCIETY OF TOXICOLOGY -PRESENT AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES-
Professor Tetsuo Satoh gave a contribution entitled "JAPANESE SOCIETY OF TOXICOLOGY -PRESENT AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES-“ to the Japanese Society of Toxicology.
In early 1960, toxicology was created as an independent scientific field apart from other disciplines such as pathology, pharmacology, biochemistry etc. The trigger of formation of science of toxicology was the incidence of thalidomide-induced malformations which occurred in Germany during late 1950’s to early 1960’s.
FOUNDATION OF THE SOCIETY OF TOXICOLOGY IN THE USA
FOUNDATION OF THE JAPANESE SOCIETY OF TOXICOLOGY
From its inception, the aims of the JSTS have been to promote the acquisition and utilization of knowledge in toxicology, and to facilitate the exchange of information among its members as well as among investigators worldwide. The JSTS was renamed the Japanese Society of Toxicology (JSOT) in 1997. In 2014, after a long series of discussions, the decision was made to establish the JSOT as a general incorporated association, and it has since developed into an organization of over 2,600 members.
1) Holding annual meetings
2) Publishing the official journal
3) Educating and certifying toxicologists
4) Conducting scientific and publicity related activities for members and the public
5) Engaging in other programs/projects deemed necessary to support the JSOT mission
As for the 40 members from around the world, seven are from Korea, 17 are from the USA, and three are from China. In addition, there are two each from France, Canada, the UK, and Switzerland, and one each from Denmark, Germany, Taiwan, Malaysia and the Netherlands. Member affiliations are diverse as well, as of 2016 our affiliates included representatives from industry and contract research organizations (70%), academia (22%), government agencies (6%), and miscellaneous others (2%).
ADMISSION OF TOXICOLOGISTS IN INDUSTRIES TO THE JSOT MEMBERSHIP
BOARD OF DIRECTORS, COUNCILORS AND GENERAL MEETING
Board of Executive Directors (Board of General Affairs)
Science and Publicity Committee
Publication of the society journals
The official journal “Journal of Toxicological Sciences (JTS)” (online ISSN: 1880-3989; print ISSN: 0388-1350) was launched in 1981 to provide a dedicated forum for invited review articles and peer reviewed original papers. Although the JTS was published bimonthly up to the end 2017, the Editorial Committee has decided the journal will be published monthly online from 2018, and that the printed issue will be discontinued.
In 2014, the Editorial Committee launched a second journal, “Fundamental Toxicological Sciences (Fundam. Toxicol. Sci.)” and put in place a highly efficient Web-based manuscript submission and peer review system.
The JTS has invited distinguished toxicologists from throughout the world to become Associate Editors, International Advisory Board and Editorial Board members. One of the Society’s top strategic priorities is the ongoing development of its journals, and the JSOT is in the process of developing a new look and feel for the journal.
The main task of Education Committee is to stimulate the advancement of toxicology and improve the quality of toxicologists by sponsoring certification and recertification examinations (for details, see “Accreditation and professional certification program” in the SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITIES below), continuing education courses, and fundamental education courses.
Science and Publicity Committee
The JSOT has provided public education lectures on toxicology at its annual meetings since 1995, and in 2006 the JSOT website was redesigned to include links to other toxicology-related websites. Our website also presents updated information in both Japanese and English for its worldwide membership.
Scientific meeting of the JSOT have been held annually at appropriate venues on a rotational basis.
Accreditation and professional certification program
A JSOT certification program for toxicologists, based on annual closed book examinations, was launched in 1997, with the content and level of examination questions selected to be comparable to those provided by the American Board of Toxicology. At the first examination of the Diplomate of the JSOT(DJSOT) certification examination in 1999, 148 toxicologists were certified. These 148 certified toxicologists included 47 who passed written examination, and 99 who were “grandfathered” in without written examinations based on their longstanding and significant careers in toxicology.
As of December 31, 2017, 572 toxicologists have been formally approved. Furthermore, as of November 21, 2017, 45 Emeritus Diplomats of the Japanese Society of Toxicologists (EDJSOT) had been certified. Approximately 80% of the Society’s diplomats are from industry, 12% are from academia, and the remaining 8% are from other fields. Diplomats may be recertified every five years provided they remain in active toxicology practice and maintain an expert level of knowledge in general toxicology.
Public education lectures
To promote public education in toxicology, the JSOT organizes public lectures during each annual meeting. Scientific experts are invited to lectures on popular and important topics related to clinical medicine and drug therapy.
The JSOT Award
Distinguished Scholar Award
The JSOT Young Scientist Award
Outstanding Technology Award
Best Paper Award
Pfizer Highly Cited Paper Award
Kitashi Mochiduki Award
JSOT PARTICIPATION IN INTERNATIONAL TOXICOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS
The purpose of the International Union of Toxicology (IUTOX) is to foster international scientific collaboration among national and other groups of toxicologists and to promote worldwide acquisition, dissemination, and utilization of knowledge related to the science of toxicology, in particular by sponsoring International Congress of Toxicology, for the benefit of mankind.
Prior to the foundation of the IUTOX, the first International Congress of Toxicology (ICT), which is not IUTOX-sponsored, was held in 1977 in Toronto, Canada. At the second congress in Brussels, Belgium in 1980, the IUTOX formation preparation meeting was held, and Dr. Yasuhiko Shirasu (TRG representative, Japan) was invited to attend.
IUTOX was officially founded in 1980. Japan’s TRG, the forerunner of the JSOT, entered into IUTOX membership in 1980. Charter member societies include the Federation of European Toxicologists & European Societies of Toxicology (EUROTOX) as well as societies from the UK, USA, India, Japan, Sweden, Finland, France, and Canada.
The IUTOX-sponsored International Congress of Toxicology (ICT) has been held every three years since 1977. In 1986, the Society hosted the Fourth International Congress of Toxicology (ICT-IV) in Tokyo, Japan (President: Professor Fuminori Sakai). A total of 1,104 participants from 39 different countries attended this event.
On June 8, 1994, the founding meeting and the first council meeting of ASIATOX was held at Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan. Participants from each member society totaled 16, including eight from Japan, three from Korea, two each from China and Taiwan, and one from Thailand.
In addition to the JSOT and the KSOT, other founding member societies include the Chinese Society of Toxicology (CSOT), the Thai Society of Toxicology (TST) (formerly the Toxicological Society of Thailand), and the Toxicology Society of Taiwan (TSTA). ASIATOX founding members were joined by the Iranian Society of Toxicology (2012) and the Toxicology Society (Singapore) in 2013. As of January 20, 2015, ASIATOX boasted more than 3,000 members from a variety of industry, academia and regulatory organizations.
The ASIATOX Congresses are spaced three years apart and rotated among member societies, with the first (ASIATOX-I) hosted by JSOT in Yokohama in 1997. A total of 474 participants from 13 countries attended this event. In 2012, the JSOT hosted ASIATOX-VI in Sendai, Japan. This event attracted 522 participants from 17 countries including 327 from Japan, 73 from Korea, 44 from China, 42 from Taiwan, and four each from Thailand and Singapore.
The society’s two ongoing missions are the maintenance of a high-quality certification program for toxicologists and considering additional ways to improve the society journals. Concerning certification, the number of JSOT-certified toxicologists has increased every year and the certification program is now well recognized worldwide. Society diplomates receive several benefits such as increased recognition at their workplace.
Another goal is the expansion of this program to include toxicologists in other countries. As for the journals, the JTS editorial team envisions building a publication with increased visibility that will enhance the scientific edge in the field of toxicology. As JTS modernizes, it has developed a highly efficient Web-based manuscript submission. As we move toward the inauguration of our online monthly journal and review system in 2018, we are confident that our systems will facilitate all aspects of manuscript submission, including tracking and communication between authors, reviewers, and editors.
The JSOT will continue to seek collaboration with other organizations with similar aims and activities globally. Toxicology is not only a multidisciplinary science, it is one that deals with a wide variety of problems that are normally taken on by other sciences that do not have specialized knowledge of our area of study.
Ultimately, the mission of the JSOT is to develop an implementation plan that ensures a systematic and efficient expenditure of energies and resources, and that is most closely aligned with a carefully considered strategy for accomplishing its long-range plans.
Dr. Tetsuo Satoh began his long and successful career after receiving his MS and Ph.D. degrees from the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University in 1963 and 1966, respectively. His first position was as an Assistant Professor at the Research Institute for Chemo-Biodynamics(RICB), Chiba University between 1966 and 1972, after which he served as an Associate Professor (research) (1972-1973) and Visiting Professor(1973-1974) at the University of Chicago Toxicity Laboratory, USA. In 1974, he returned to the RICB in Japan.
Dr. Satoh then became an Associate Professor in the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences at Chiba University between the years of 1975 and 1984, and afterwards spent four years as a Full Professor at Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences. In 1988, he returned to Chiba University as a Full Professor, where he taught until 1996. Dr. Satoh retired from Chiba University in 1996, and became an Emeritus Professor at Chiba University.
Dr. Satoh was a founding Editor-in-Chief of the Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin which is the official journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. He has been an Associate Editor of a number of journals including Toxicological Sciences(SOT) and Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, both in the USA.
Dr. Satoh’s numerous awards include the Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics (JSSX) Award (1995), the Education Award from the US Society of Toxicology (SOT), the Education Award from the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan (PSJ), and the Merit Award from the International Union of Toxicology (IUTOX). Dr. Satoh became a fellow of the US Academy of Toxicological Sciences (ATS) in 2001. In 2015, he was certified as an Emeritus Diplomat of the Japanese Society of Toxicology (EDJSOT).
Over the years, Dr. Satoh has been elected to numerous national and international societies, including Vice President of the International Union of Toxicology (IUTOX)(1995-2001), Founding Secretary General (1994-2001) and Senior Advisor (2001-present) of the Asian Society of Toxicology (ASIATOX). Dr. Satoh is also an Emeritus/Honorary member of several societies, including American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (ASCPT), as well as the SOT, JSSX, PSJ, and JSOT.
He has published approximately 400 peer-reviewed original articles and more than 24 review articles and book chapters over the past 50 years.
Toxicology in Asia—Past, present, and future
Tetsuo Satoh: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Japan Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Toxicology was first recognized as a scientific discipline in Asia with the formation of the Japanese Society of Toxicological Sciences (JSTS, later renamed the Japanese Society of Toxicology (JSOT)) in 1981, which is a society that promotes knowledge utilization and exchange of information among toxicologists around the world. Following the JSOT, other toxicology societies at the national level were formed in Asia.
Later, the Asian Society of Toxicology (ASIATOX) was founded to promote the acquisition and exchange of knowledge in Asia. ASIATOX is one of several regional member societies of the International Union of Toxicology (IUTOX), which also includes the Federation of European Toxicologists and European Societies of Toxicology (EUROTOX), and the Latin American Society of Toxicology. The history and current conditions of toxicology in Asia are described below.
The Asian Society of Toxicology
Preliminary meeting of the formation of ASIATOX
Preparatory meeting for the formation of ASIATOX
Foundation of the ASIATOX
The founding ASIATOX executive committee members (1994–1997)
- President: Tomoji Yanagita (Japan)
- 1st Vice President: Sang Dai Park (Korea)
- 2nd Vice President: Jion Lin Zhou (China)
- Secretary General:Tetsuo Satoh (Japan)
- Treasurer: Kyu-Hwan Yang (Korea)
- Auditors: Jen-kun Lin (Taiwan) and Songsak Srianujata (Thailand)
- Serve as the scientific voice of toxicology in Asia under the IUTOX umbrella.
- Provide leadership and a forum for promoting scientific cooperation and information exchange related to toxicology in Asia.
- Organize triennial international congresses of ASIATOX with the member societies in order to facilitate and encourage scientific exchange and leadership.
- Enhance opportunities for educational development in toxicology.
- Facilitate platforms for discussion among regulators, academics, stakeholders, the private sector, and the public at large regarding toxicological issues.
- Encourage diversity within the toxicological disciplines, and increase the number of member societies within the region.
- Improve dialogue with member societies and other toxicology societies worldwide.
- Address leadership as a scientific organization based on a state-of-the-art knowledge in toxicological sciences.
- Pursue capacity building in toxicology in Asia to contribute to the enhancement of toxicology education and the career development of young toxicologists.
The ASIATOX congresses
(See Table 1 for details)
Future perspectives of the ASIATOX include:
- recruitment of new member societies
- establishment of education and training programs
- certification and accreditation of toxicologists
- newsletter publication
Toxicological activities of the ASIATOX member societies
Japanese Society of ToxicologyFoundation of the JSOT
Mission. In support of the JSOT mission for advancing health through furthering understanding of, and research in, toxicology, the society promotes the following activities:
- Convening the annual meeting.
- Publishing the official journal
- Educating and certifying toxicologists
- Conducting scientific and publicity related activities for members and the public
- Engaging in other programs/projects deemed necessary to support the JSOT mission.
National and international meetings. The JSOT scientific meeting is held annually. In 1986, the Society hosted the 4th International Congress of Toxicology (ICT-IV) in Tokyo, Japan, which was attended by 1,104 participants from 39 different countries.
Contrastingly, ASIATOX congresses are spaced 3 years apart, with the first (ASIATOX-I) hosted by JSOT in Yokohama in 1997. This event was attended by 474 participants from 13 countries. In 2012, JSOT hosted ASIATOX-VI in Sendai. This event attracted 522 participants from 17 countries including 327 from Japan, 73 from Korea, 44 from China, 42 from Taiwan, and 4 each from Thailand and Singapore.
Publication of the society journals. The official journal Journal of Toxicological Sciences (JTS; J. Toxicol Sci.) was launched in 1981 to provide a dedicated forum for invited review articles and peer reviewed original papers. In 2014, a second journal, “Fundamental Toxicological Sciences (Fund. Tox. Sci.) was launched, and the editorial committee has put in place a highly efficient Web-based manuscript submission and peer review system.
Accreditation and professional certification program. A JSOT certification program for toxicologists, based on annual closed book examinations, was launched in 1997, with the content and level of examination questions selected to be comparable with those provided by the American Board of Toxicology. At the first certification examination for Diplomat of the Japanese Society of Toxicology in 1999, 148 toxicologists were certified. As of June 2014, 454 toxicologists have been formally approved. Approximately 80% of the society’s diplomats are from industry, 12% from academia, and 8% from other fields. Diplomats may be recertified every 5 years provided they remain in active toxicology practice and maintain an expert level of knowledge in general toxicology.
Conclusion and future perspectives. Over the years, JSOT has achieved exceptional success with its meetings, publications, member services, and outreach activities. The society’s two ongoing missions are maintaining the high-quality certification program for toxicologists and considering ways to improve the society journals.
Concerning certification, the number of JSOT-certified toxicologists has increased every year since its inauguration, and the certification program is now well recognized worldwide. Another goal of the program is to expand it to toxicologists in other countries. As for the journal, the JTS editorial team envisions building a publication with increased visibility, and which enhances the scientific edge in the field of toxicology.
Ultimately, the mission of JSOT is to develop an implementation plan that ensures a systematic and efficient expenditure of energies and resources, and that is most closely aligned with a carefully considered strategy for accomplishing its long-range plans.
Korean Society of Toxicology
Publication. KSOT’s official journal, the Korean Journal of Toxicology was launched in 1985, and then renamed Toxicological Research (ToxRes) in 1997. Articles published in this journal are indexed in Scopus of Elsevier and PubMed Central, as well as other major scientific databases including Google Scholar. ToxRes is published quarterly.
Scientific conferences. The KSOT has organized scientific meeting annually to promote academic exchanges with relevant national and international societies and organizations. Each year, the society sponsors and conducts a variety of education and training programs aimed at nurturing young toxicologists.
Certification of toxicologists through training and tests. The KSOT diplomat system, which was established in 1999, conducts yearly certification examinations every October. As of March 2015, the society was represented by 70 diplomats, 47 in industry and 23 in academia.
Chinese Society of Toxicology
The CSOT established its Toxicologist Certification program in 2009 after several years’ preparation and commenced recertifications in 2013. The program includes prequalification on education and professional experience for eligibility, and a written examination on general toxicology. As of March 2015, the CSOT had certified 167 members as diplomat toxicologists (DCST), 62 of whom have been recertified in the last 2 years.
Thai Society of Toxicology
Dr Malyn Chulsiri is TST Vice President. Dr Chaniphun Butryee serves as the Secretary General, and Dr Anong Bintavihok is the treasurer.
The present (2014–2016) TST Executive Committee consists of 18 members. The society is a founding member of the Council of Science and Technology Associations of Thailand (COSTAT) and ASIATOX as well as being a long-standing member of IUTOX. Dr Songsak also served as president of COSTAT for 8 years (four terms in office) and as ASIATOX president for 3 years.
Major activities of the TST are discussed subsequently.
National and international meetings. Organizing the annual National Conference of Toxicology (NCT). Hosting the international conferences, such as the 3rd ASIATOX and the 8th International Conference of Toxicology in Developing Countries (CTDC8) under the auspices of IUTOX.
Participation in governmental activities and public. Participating in national government committees and subcommittees concerning the management of the safety of chemicals, hazardous substances, food, and drug control.
Participating in study projects on environmental safety and public health issues.
Education and training program. Organizing periodic training programs aimed at spreading knowledge and understanding about toxicology matters among society members, specific groups, and the general public.
Toxicology Society of Taiwan
TSTA became a member of ASIATOX in 1997 and has been actively participating in various related activities since then, including serving as the host organization of the 5th International Congress of ASIATOX at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital in September 2009. In addition to ASIATOX, TSTA joined IUTOX in 1987 and has regularly hosted the biennial cross-strait meetings between TSTA and CSOT.
To comply with the international harmonization of the certification/registration of toxicologists worldwide, an effort led by IUTOX, TSTA has recently established a board certification program for Diplomat of Certified Toxicologist (DTSTA). The first board certification exam was held at Kaohsiung Medical University on June 28, 2014. Among the 10 examinees, Dr Hsio-Mei Chiang, Dr Pinpin Lin, and Dr Hwei-Hsien Chen successfully passed and were awarded the title of DTSTA. The 2nd exam is scheduled to be held at Kaohsiung Medical University on July 4, 2015, and it is expected that more toxicologists in Taiwan will become DTSTAs.
Toxicology Society (Singapore)
Iranian Society of Toxicology
IranTox became an IUTOX member in 2001 and joined ASIATOX in 2011. The Society is actively involved in various activities including the organization of national and international Congresses, advancement of toxicology, and poisoning-related studies, investigations into the health impacts of poisons and chemicals, and providing advice to authorities at the national and international levels. The Iranian Journal of Toxicology, which is the official journal of the society, was launched in 2008 and is published quarterly.
Courses in basic and clinical toxicology in the nation’s major universities and the National Board of Toxicology were founded and administered by the IranTox members. This includes the toxicology PhD program that was founded in 1989 and the fellowship in clinical toxicology founded in 2008. Since the establishment of these courses, more than 100 diplomats have been certified. Examinations are held every year. Currently, IranTox consists of about 150 certified toxicologists in academia and industries.
Conclusions and future perspectives
- to provide leadership as a worldwide scientific organization that objectively addresses global issues involving the toxicological sciences;
- to broaden the geographical base of toxicology as a discipline and a profession to all countries of the world; and
- to pursue capacity building in toxicology, particularly in developing countries, and to utilize its global perspective and network to contribute to the enhancement of toxicology education and the career development of young toxicologists.
(Citation: T. Satoh: Human & Experimental TOXICOLOGY 34(12)1291-1296(2015))
On Our Society
CEO, J-Pharma Co., Ltd.
The Japanese Society of Toxicology derives its origin from a semi-private toxicology study group operated by members of the Science Council of Japan. This group was then organized into the Society of Study of Toxic Effects in 1975, which was renamed the Japanese Society of Toxicological Sciences in 1981, and then the Japanese Society of Toxicology in 1997 as we call it today. Thus our society’s name has changed several times reflecting the social conditions of the times both at home and abroad as well as progress made in fields of science and technology. For an outline of our activities, I would like you to refer to our website.
Our society (its predecessor) was first organized by the “academe” - the Society of Study of Toxic Effects created as an interdisciplinary academic organization in the realm of life science. The 1960’s through 1970’s witnessed upheavals seeking university reforms not only in Japan but overseas as well. In Japan, campus riots in almost all universities nationwide were triggered by the university-wide student movement at the University of Tokyo stemming from the punishment of reformist students at the School of Medicine. At the University of Tokyo’s Faculty of Medicine, for example, the focus of greatest conflict was the field of clinical medicine which faced a number of problems. However, response to these problems by the administrators concerned was so inadequate that they decided to shelve their clinicians’ official entry into the Society of Study of Toxic Effects. In those days there were a number of clinical toxicoses, including the case of thalidomide side effects, Minamata and Itai-itai diseases, SMON and Kanemi Oil poisoning. In effect, however, clinical medicine researchers did little, although they were supposed to be the vital driving force in the fight against such drug-derived poisoning cases. Meanwhile, meetings of the Japan-Korea Joint Seminar on Toxicology had been held on a regular basis. This was later dissolved and developed into the Asian Society of Toxicology. Despite such a positive development, the first meeting of the Asian Society of Toxicology could not be held jointly with the Japanese Society of Poisoning which was organized with the participation of many specialists from first-aid medicine. If successfully organized jointly, the meeting would have provided a momentum for the future merger of the Japanese Society of Poisoning with the Japanese Society of Toxicological Sciences.
The systematic participation of the “industry” sector marked a vital turning point in the development of our society. In the latter half of the 1980’s, annual scientific meetings of the Japanese Society of Toxicological Sciences attracted such a small number of participants that many even expressed a serious concern as to whether to continue the scientific meetings or not. But support from the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association made it possible for us to tide over the crisis. The association’s Basic Research Division was kind enough to set the venue and date of its annual assembly to those of our annual scientific meeting. This enabled us to secure many participants in the annual scientific meeting on an ongoing basis while also helping us to enrich the substance of the meeting. These improvements also made it possible for us to organize the 4th International Congress on Toxicology in Tokyo in 1986. Participation of the “industry” sector also gave rise to still another improvement. Formerly it had been an established practice to elect our society’s board members such as directors and auditors as well as annual meeting chairmen from the “academe” sector only, but now participation from the “industry” sector came to be encouraged instead of confining candidates to the “academe.”
The acceleration of international collaboration in pharmaceutical development and the globalization of scientific pursuits inevitably led to the participation of the “government” sector. Events along this trend occurred in quite a natural course of development, eliminating the need for any special consideration. The most encouraging sign above all was the positive participation in our society of researchers from the National Institute of Health Sciences, which enabled us to establish the Diplomate of the Japanese Society of Toxicology (D.J.S.T.) qualifying examination system. At the same time, our society became powerful enough to publish textbooks and a toxicology dictionary as references for toxicology. In addition, our society grew into an entity that can now exert influences in diverse fields. For example, we were requested by the government to screen judges who are commissioned to allocate the government’s research subsidies, including scientific research subsidies from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology. Furthermore, some of our members were invited to join in the large-scale national research project for Toxicogenomics which encompasses our society’s main research theme. All these events attest to the fact that our society is increasingly coming to the fore with ever-greater capabilities and influence.
As an organization whose activities have a number of interfaces with society, chances are the Japanese Society of Toxicology will sometimes face difficulties in management and operations. Issues arise such as the recognition of pollution-related diseases and establishment of environmental conservation standards, for example. For these, there is relatively more room for politics to step in, and it is not always possible for us to respond with solutions based on our unanimous agreement. As such, it is justly reasonable to maintain the scientific perspective in dealing with these issues.
Toxicology is an extremely interdisciplinary field of science. While we believe that the future of humankind and pursuit of an ideal social structure should be supported by science, we are not quite sure whether our current capabilities will suffice as a support. Accordingly, the key to achieving this goal depends on how we can incorporate humane studies including ethics as well as the above-mentioned clinical medicine. Today, academic societies in Japan are becoming increasingly subdivided by so-called vertical organization. By contrast, what the Japanese Society of Toxicology aims to be in the near future seems to be an organization with functions for horizontal integration.